Occasionally patients will have continued pain following spinal surgery. There are many possible causes for this. If the pain is not severe then no further evaluation or surgical treatment is necessary. However, if the pain is severe then further evaluation is warranted. This evaluation often includes a physical exam, x-rays, nerve studies, MRI and occasionally a myelogram/CT scan. Further treatment depends upon the findings of this evaluation. If there is not an abnormality amenable to surgery, then a program for chronic pain management is often indicated. However, if an abnormality is found that is amenable to surgery then revision spinal surgery may be an option to decrease a patient’s pain. This often includes additional decompression of nerve roots, revision of metal rods and screws used to fix the spine or repair of a spinal fusion that did not heal.